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14 Beneficial Uses for Walnut Oil for the Skin, Hair and Health

Walnut Oil


Chronic skin conditions such as Eczema and particularly Psoriasis that have no known cure at this time, can be debilitating and embarrassing for the sufferer.  The anti-inflammatory nature of walnut oil has shown to ease and soothe the skin of patients, providing a better quality of life.


When applied to the areas of skin affected by sunburn, the oil has been clinically proven to ease the symptoms of this common condition, especially in people travelling to warmer climates.  This has caused a recent boom in popularity among those planning a trip abroad.


The oil is literally packed with Antioxidants, which is the best known method to battle old and tired looking skin.  When massaged gently into the epidermis, walnut oil has shown a dramatic reduction to the appearance of existing wrinkles and helps to slow the visible signs of aging.


The skin is the largest organ of the human body, and it is under constant bombardments from bacteria through the environment that surrounds us.  When applied, walnut oil can help by providing a natural and organic protection against these pathogens.


In a world where many people now visit a gymnasium, walnut oil is not only fast becoming popular among sports enthusiasts but among everyday people as well.  Recognised as a natural Anti-Inflammatory, walnut oil can be messaged in to the areas of the body that has suffered muscle strain and inflammation through over exertion to reduce swelling and sooth the muscular pain.


Walnut oil is composed of over seventy percent polyunsaturated fats as well as a large amount of monounsaturated fats and consists of zero percent cholesterol.  This means that the consumption of the oil is hugely beneficial to the heart and to the blood vessels connected to this vital organ of the human body.   Reducing fat deposition in the arteries, the improvement of blood flow helps to lower blood pressure.  This can significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and even strokes.  The oil is also known to battle the build-up of plaque on the artery walls which can help in the treatment of those suffering from Atherosclerosis, also known as Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.


Walnut oil contains large amounts of Potassium, which has been proven to stimulate hair growth and actually helps the body in the production of growing new hair cells.  Many cases of hair loss have been caused by a starvation of both nutrients and oxygen to the hair follicles themselves which results in the death of these cells.  The oil provides improved blood flow to the follicles thereby dramatically reducing Alopecia.  With high levels of vitamin E as well as large quantities of healthy fats, walnut oil also helps to hydrate and protect the scalp from unwanted conditions such as dandruff.


Walnut oil can be an extremely effective at helping with diabetic related complications caused by the body suffering dysfunctions in its management of glucose. This is particularly useful in helping patients diagnosed with Type-2 Diabetes.  In a world where people are consuming more and more processed foods consisting of unhealthy high levels of sugar, walnut oil can assist anyone in getting a grip of their body’s blood sugar levels.  Commonly bought packaged foods available today in supermarkets contain fats that slow the absorption of glucose. This problem is growing at an alarming rate, especially in modern western societies.   By stimulating the inset cells of the pancreas, walnut oil can stimulate and regulate the production of insulin in a timelier manner.


Scientists are now setting out to gather evidence to support an already respected hypothesis that walnut oil has a unique capability to actually reprogram those genes that are more prone to mutating into a cancerous cell, thus reducing the risk of an individual who may have developed cancer later in life.  The human body is constantly producing what is commonly known as Free Radicals through natural metabolism, differing physiochemical conditions or pathological states.  If the production of Free Radicals caused by living environment or diet become too great, the body can become overwhelmed and incapable of preventing a condition known as Oxidative Stress.  This condition causes havoc to the bodies Alter Lipids, Proteins and DNA, triggering a number of diseases, mainly in the form of various cancers.  The high level of Anti-Oxidants found in walnut oil, directly addresses this growing issue at the source, taking out the Free Radicals and providing health to the fundamental basis of our body’s biological system.


The body’s immunity it is said, “Begins with the skin, and ends within the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts”.  The significant boost provided by both Antioxidant and Anti-bacterial properties of the oil improves general organ functionality allowing the body’s immune system to focus fully on more dangerous complications occurring at any one time.


Walnut oil is extremely aromatic and has been reported by many as having therapeutic value providing a calming effect on both the mind and the body.   As well as this, the consumption of the oil also has a great effect for reducing stress.  By opening the body’s arteries and reducing both fat deposits and plaque as mentioned earlier, the body receives a kind of energetic boost which ultimately leads to a greater sense of purpose and well-being with a much sharper mind.


The list goes on for the beneficial natural elements found in walnut oil.  Magnesium is currently showing huge promise in the treatment and prevention of migraine attacks.  In fact, comprehensive studies now prove that people who are deficient in the mineral, but take a supplement, experience far less migraines compared to those that do not.  Walnut oil naturally contains large quantities of magnesium and so provides an organic method for this already popular solution.


Vitamin K and Potassium are sometimes confused with each other.  And considering that walnut oil possesses a fair quantity of both within its’ own composition, this point must be included on the list.  Although the symbol upon the periodic table is “K”, potassium is a mineral whereas here we refer to the vitamin. Vitamin K plays a very important role for providing the body’s bones with the correct mineralisation.  This balance prevents breakages and fractures by strengthening the mineralisation within the bone.


Another healthy component that exists within walnut oil is Melatonin. Recent studies prove that Melatonin, a natural hormone produced by the body, provides sleep in proper balance.  The consumption of walnut oil can counter the reduction thought to occur through modern lifestyle.

©Christopher Roper




GERD stands for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and occurs when digestive acid rises into the oesophagus which is the pipe connecting the throat to the stomach.  This can cause severe heartburn in the patient and even lead to dangerous soft tissue damage.


With over twenty per cent of the American people experiencing heartburn every day, GERD is a very common condition.  Occasional acid reflux can be caused by simple changes required to a person’s diet, lying down too soon after eating or the body reacting to certain foods.  Recurring acid reflux however, can be caused by an underlying issue in the body’s functionality and should be treated quickly to prevent further and more serious complications from developing.  It is often discovered that a patient diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a weakness of the sphincter which is a small valve located at the bottom of the oesophagus, or if the sphincter is opening at times when it should not be doing so.

Common causes of GERD are obesity or pregnancy through increased abdominal pressure, the side effects of certain medications taken or smoking.  There is also a kind of hernia known as a “Hiatal Hernia” where the diaphragm of the sufferer opens and allows the top of the stomach to rise into the lower portion of the chest cavity, thus lowering the pressure in the oesophageal sphincter


Though heartburn is the most common symptom of acid reflux, an individual diagnosed with GERD often experiences a thickening of the saliva which often brings nausea and vomiting.  It can also cause bad breath or in extreme cases lead to respiratory difficulties and pain when attempting to swallow.  If you suffer from acid reflux frequently then you should seek medical advice from a doctor specialising in the area of the gut so that the causes may be investigated.  If symptoms are left unchecked, then your condition may worsen significantly.  This could be by inflammation or constriction of the oesophagus making it very difficult to swallow.  You could also develop a condition known as Barrett’s oesophagus where the cells lining the oesophagus mutate to be similar to those that line the intestinal wall.  This in turn can lead to cancer.  The stomach acid may also rise to be breathed in by the lungs causing problems that can range from asthma, laryngitis or can even be an underlying cause for pneumonia.


The main form of pharmaceutical treatment currently available for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease are Proton Pump Inhibitors which actually reduce the amount of stomach acid that the body produces. H2 Blockers can also be used to cause this biological effect. Antacids can counteract and neutralise the stomach acids to a degree by making use of alkaline chemicals.  These are known to create side effects in the patients’ digestion however, ranging from diarrhoea to the opposite end of the scale in the form of constipation.  A treatment known as Prokinetics which empties out the stomach quicker are also known to cause the same side effects as antacids with the addition of anxiety reported in certain cases.  If the cause of the acid reflux is bacterial in nature then the best form of treatment is in the form of an antibiotic known as Erythromycin.

There are also two forms of surgery currently available for patients’ who have tried the above remedies with little or no success.  Fundoplication is a procedure where the top of the stomach is stitched tighter adding pressure to the lower oesophagus and it is this procedure that is most commonly used for its success rate.  There are also a series of Endoscopic Procedures that use a combination of sewing and heat through radio frequencies that help to tighten the sphincter muscle.

Prevention is always advisable and to eat little and often with a balanced diet and never 2 to 3 hours before sleep, losing weight, wearing loose comfortable clothing and quitting smoking all together can help to prevent an individual from ever suffering from a condition that at times can be wholly debilitating as GERD.

©Christopher Roper


The Genesis G70 Sports Sedan

G70 Front


Genesis are a reasonably new brand to enter the market, but the release of the G70 will prove the manufacturers abilities to deliver with a combination of state of the art technology, luxurious comfort and raw power.  The G70 is driven by a 2.0 litre turbo engine providing 252bhp or you may opt for the savage growl of the 3.3 litre V6 borrowed from its bigger brother the G80, giving this sports car a staggeringly powerful 365bhp.  Both models come with an eight speed automatic transmission and each are available with both rear and four wheel drive options.  For the true enthusiast, a 6 speed manual gearbox will be available on the 2.0 litre rear wheel drive edition.


The size specifications reveal the G70 to be perfectly balanced between being compact and still allowing for spacious comfort with a 111.6 inch wheel base and a 184.5 inch overall length.  This places the G70 comparable in size to the Audi A4 or BMW 3 series, yet is still smaller than its main competitor, the Kia Stinger.  This means that the G70 will likely be lighter than the stinger as well, and lighter often runs hand in hand with quicker.


The up and coming manufacturers’ seem to have spared no expense for the design of the G70’s interior.  With quilted, stitched leather seats providing comfort, the G70 also comes with an option of a 15 speaker audio system by Lexicon®.  A touchscreen display built in to the dash provides hands on interaction with the cars electronic features, while conventional climate controls offer a slightly retro aesthetic.


When it comes to safety, Genesis make absolutely no compromises.  The Driver Attention Warning system (DAW) actually monitors the driving patterns by analysing the lanes that the vehicle is occupying then warns the driver through 5 stages on the touchscreen display, prompting a break to be taken if the system senses that the driver may be suffering fatigue or inattentive driving of any kind.

Another system called Blind-spot Collision warning (BCW) will warn the driver of any fast approaching vehicles by utilising two radars that are installed to the rear of the car.

The list goes on.

Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) utilises a camera installed to the front of the vehicle to detect accidental lane departure and drift and then the car will steer itself gently back into a safe position in the centre of the lane.  Forward Collision-avoidance Assist (FCA) has the car use a combination of its front end camera and radar system to detect potential collisions and will even apply the brakes to prevent an accident.  Keeping not only the driver, but the safety of all other users of the road as a high priority.

And still more….

The Genesis G70 has headlamps equipped with both Low Beam Assist (LBA) and High Beam Assist (HBA) technology.  With LBA, the headlamps of the vehicle will turn as the driver turns the steering wheel to improve visibility and reduce blind spots.  Through active sensors monitoring the headlamps of oncoming vehicles as well as the tail lamps of those in front and the overall brightness of the surroundings, the G70 automatically switches between high beam and low beam keeping other road users a little safer and providing all possible safety to its driver.

G70 Rear

©Christopher Roper


Twenty basic essentials and tech gadgets that you must carry on your next trip to India

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Listed below are twenty items which I consider the bare minimum essentials and must have technological modern marvels everyone considering a trip to India ought to possess.


Frankly, this is advisable on any trip that you are about to undertake, especially if the culture differs greatly from the one that you are used to.  It is not that India does not have the materials to fill a first aid kit available, only that you may be unaware of where these can be purchased and so it is always good to keep these absolute essentials for health and wellbeing.  An item for this kit usually overlooked is Charcoal Tablets.  These tablets can help with the symptoms of having diarrhea and dysentery, which is a common occurrence in first time travelers who have no idea where to and where not to have a bite.


When trekking out into the world during our late teenage years or even early twenties, it is in our nature to simply wish to buy a ticket, jump on an airplane and fly!!! Those that do this without the forethought for basic travel and health insurance however, may often find themselves at a loose end once they have arrived.  If you are travelling to India, possessing these can ensure that should you lose your luggage or suffer an injury your needs will be catered for


The only thing to match the beauty offered by the Indian skies at sundown, are the mosquitoes’ insatiable taste for tourists.  Those that come prepared with this easy to overlook item would save themselves entire days and nights of itching torment, depriving the native insects their next meal.  An absolute necessity on our list this one!!!


Laugh all you like, but if using a hand faucet is not something that you are accustomed to or comfortable with, then you’re going to wish that you had packed this.


With the appearance of hand sanitizer on the consumers market, this tiny bottle is so practical, so preventative of illness that I would consider it insane not to include.  Clean hands make for settled stomachs.


The Indian sun is a powerful one.  We can still maintain a vitamin rich glow to the skin without burning it.  This is one of the more serious items on our list as neglecting to apply sun lotion can cause severe medical problems.


Though I would hardly refer to India as the “The Land of Thieves”, it is always advisable to have your luggage locked up safe whenever you are not actively removing items or packing them.  Keeping your passport as well as all essentials on this list safe is of paramount importance after all, there are thieves to be found all over the world.


Protect your eyes through the daytime, as we previously stated, the Indian sun is a formidable one.  That said, look to the market and stay cool in the heat.  No-one wants a repeat of the eighties fashion.


Gone are the days where we carry pen, paper, laptop, organizer etc.  Now, all of these items are neatly contained within an incredible gadget we all know as the Smartphone.  Don’t leave home without it.


This is why the ‘No Network Lock’ was mentioned for the previous item.  It is amazing how many people travel in to another part of the world, only to discover that either their phone is locked to a network not valid or that they have to suffer extortionate ‘Roaming’ charges.  With an Indian SIM card with data, the cost of phone calls is a lot less and you would almost always still be able to use network dependent apps, such as those that appear here.


All smartphones usually come with google maps and the app is now available to download from the iStore.  There are some paid satellite navigation apps out there that host a lot more features and reliability than those offered by Google maps.  These also do not chew all of your data running in the background and are worth ten minutes of looking in to before your trip


Staying with smartphones and apps for the moment, there are many good quality apps available on both the Apple app store and Google Play that offer instant translation.  As India is rich in different dialects, an app as this can breach the language barrier with ease and get you where you need to go.


Many people who have travelled to India have mentioned the need for earplugs as the background noise in certain cities can be quite loud.  I feel this is ridiculous however, when we live in an age where earplugs provide quality stereo sound to provide our favorite music.  Why walk through the streets of India, when you can strut.


Hardly anyone really bothers with a good quality camera anymore as the smartphones sport high definition versions themselves.  The land of India is a vibrant one however, rich in colors that cannot be taken in anywhere else in the world.  So for the now neglected camera, we would warn you, forgetting brings regretting.


A small, reasonably cheap item that can be utilized as quickly as it takes to plug your devices in but without this you may discover that your power chargers have been rendered useless depending on where you are coming from.


A superb addition to our list as this covers the criteria of both being gadgetry and absolutely essential.  When your smartphone becomes your navigator, your translator and your means to reach others, you never want to be running out of charge at the critical moment when such a device is needed.


Okay, so you would think if you remembered the previously mentioned item you could not possibly forget this one.  Well, many have kicked themselves for forgetting this tiny detail, so I figure it warrants a mention.


This item is important!!! Why take the risk of dysentery and other waterborne bacteria when a simple yet incredibly useful and portable item as this can provide you with assured clean drinking water.


These handy little gadgets can give you essential control of your smart device as well as make phone calls and provide all sorts of wonderful tasks.  Welcome to the future.


The final spot on our list is admittedly low tech for sure.  However, with India offering such fine cuisine at incredibly low cost, we feel sure that you will indulge often in the dining out experience.  With so many curry’s being tomato based and potentially providing unmovable stains at the beginning of your evening, a good red t-shirt seems just good common sense.  Disguise the stains with a little wet wipe.

©Christopher Roper 2018

Advanced NLCSC Treatments


This article will provide information and advice for patients suffering from Advanced Metastatic NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), also referred to as Stage IV NSCLC.

Advanced Metastatic NSCLC is the name given to lung cancer that has spread from the lungs to other parts of the body.  Lung cancer often grows unnoticed, as the main symptoms often come from metastasis rather than the cancers’ source.  If metastasis occurs, it is absolutely imperative to seek advice from an Oncologist doctor who has experience dealing with Stage IV NSCLC to afford you the best options for available treatments.  As treatments such as radiation therapy and surgery are given to tumours in their early stages, advanced NSCLC treatments are more often a type of Systemic therapy.

Systemic therapies aim to relieve symptoms by shrinking the cancer and preventing it from spreading to other areas in the body thereby lengthening a patient’s life and helping with the discomfort.  Though there have been cases where Systemic treatments have seemed to cause the metastatic lung cancer to disappear, oncologists often see a return of the disease in the patient so Stage IV NSCLC is never considered cured, even with successful treatment.  Systemic therapy will be continued to be administered as long as it is proving successful at either reducing the cancer affected area or at least preventing further growth.

There are three lines of systemic therapy that are offered to the patient depending upon certain conditions.

The first line of treatment suitable if there are no genetic changes in the EGFR, ALK or ROS1 genes of the tumour itself and if a tumour contained a high level of PD-L1 protein, the patient could be offered Pembrolizumab, a humanized anti-body also called immunotherapy.

If the PD-L1 protein is not at high levels then Chemotherapy is most likely to be offered.  For patients who already receive a combination of Carboplatin and Paclitaxel then this may also include Bevacizumab for treatment of patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab may be added for patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma who’s Chemotherapy include a combination of Carboplatin and Pemetrexed.

The three main targeted therapies or TKIs that are available for patients with tumours that have a change in the EGFR gene are:

  • Afatinib
  • Erlotinib
  • Gefitinib

There are four main targeted therapies for those with tumours that have undergone a  change in the ALK gene which are:

  • Alectinib
  • Brigatinib
  • Ceritinib
  • Crizotinib

If a patients tumours have undergone changes to the ROS1 gene then usually only Crizotinib is an option for this first line TKI.

Second Line Systemic Therapies for Advanced NSCLC Treatments are as follows:

For patients who have no genetic changes in the EGFR, ALK or ROS1 genes, having a high level of PD-L1 protein received no immunotherapy but have received first line treatment chemotherapy then the three main options are:

  • Nivolumab
  • Pembrolizumab
  • Atezolizumab

With a low level of PD-L1 having already received chemotherapy from the first line of treatment:

  • Nivolumab
  • Atezolizumab
  • Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy can be offered for those who have already received immunotherapy and if immunotherapy caused severe side effects, then Docetaxel can be offered as a substitute.  Pemetrexed can also be administered at this stage for patients suffering from Non-Squamous Cell Carcinoma so long as they did not receive it in the first line of treatment.

Patients who have a mutation on the EGFR gene may have developed a further mutation named T790M which resists TKI.  For this worsened condition a patient is likely to be offered:

  • Osimertinib
  • Chemotherapy
  • Continued TKI
  • Surgery or Radiation Therapy to the areas where the cancer has spread further

If the ROS1 gene has undergone mutation then a patient may be offered:

  • Crizotinib if not previously administered
  • Chemotherapy that may be combined with Bevacizumab

For patients who have tumours with a mutation to the BRAF gene and have not received previous immunotherapy the options for treatment are:

  • Atezolizumab
  • Nivolumab
  • Pembrolizumab

And for patients who have already received immunotherapy

  • Dabrafenib
  • A combination of Dabrafenib and Trametinib

Third line Systemic Therapy for Advanced NSCLC Treatment is usually given by way of chemotherapy combined with either Pemetrexed or Docetaxel

If the treatment becomes ineffective then it would be stopped, though patients would continue to receive palliative care and should seek advice on clinical trials that are currently available.  Clinical trials are treatments that are still in the testing phases and usually consist of newly developed drugs or combinations of drugs that currently provide the best-known standard of treatment.


©Christopher Roper



The Petone Sports Bar


Judging from the exterior, anyone will undoubtedly be surprised at just how spacious and inviting The Petone Sports Bar really is as they walk through the door.  Located at 266 Jackson Street, Petone, the bar is the perfect place to take some time for relaxation at the end of your day.  Offering a warm and friendly atmosphere, the bar has a pool table and flat screen televisions always showing live sporting events.

The service leaves no one waiting for too long.

If you fancy your hand as a pool champion, then this is a decent place to test your greatness.  Every Thursday, the bar holds a Pool Tournament.  With a $5 entry fee and a winner takes all prize, your night may turn out to be not only entertaining, but profitable as well.  It is as much fun to enjoy this weekly challenge as a spectator as much as it is to compete in.

If pool is not your thing, then how about showcasing your talents as a singer with the Karaoke that is held every Saturday night.  This is another event that is as fun to watch as it is to participate in, as you are as likely to witness some patron with delusions of becoming the next  Freddie Mercury or Beyonce Knowles embarrass themselves as you are to see some very real talent.

Take some time for yourself to kick back and enjoy the simple pleasures of a good drink in the best company.  The bar is open weekdays and weekends alike, so why not pay a visit today.  It is one of life’s certainties that you will wish to return.

©Christopher Roper



The Inchara Bar, Mangalore

Strong in a bottle, twice as large and served with a smile for half the price. Where a corrugated roofed top terrace with cast iron fixings becomes a thing of beauty. Icy cold beads of sweat which promise to quench the thirst caused by your own. To briefly exist within such a freedom to relax which can only be had in that very instance of experience, and through the living of it, brought to the realisation of how little we allow ourselves these moments of reflection. These simple seconds that can be held in memory over an entire lifetime. The rich reward that comes from a calming breath to feel gratitude for Today.

With condensation cascading down the sides of the glass as the bubbles rise to tempt with a live and lovely drink, I find a personal paradise. Discovered not at any particular location or the liquor that I imbibe, but within a tiny portion of appreciated time that has always been freely available to me, yet so seldom taken advantage of.

The service delivered from one man to another is that of courtesy and respect which offers more than that which has been ordered. It provides the very platform for me to sate myself with all of the time that my heart would desire.

A whiskey then. Oh my word!!! Something lost it seems within the Englishman’s world famous native climate is the spirit that I then had the pleasure to taste. Now let us be clear here. There is a great expanse between the same drink served at room temperature that alters dramatically depending upon exactly where you are in the world. When a spirit taken straight causes no quiver from the body nor awkward tug from the tonsils. Just warmth. A warmth that sharpens the senses without ensnaring the mind. The wonder of how this taken time of mine, these mere moments, have slightly enriched my life’s experience and afforded fresh perspective to the importance given for solace of the soul…

For how can we ever have time, if we do not take it?!


©Christopher Roper



Freon Vs Puron 2.png


Freon® is a registered trademark that most notably manufactures the colourless gas Freon®22,  a coolant that is still widely used in home air conditioning units today, also known as R-22.  Developed in the late 1920s as a replacement for the toxic refrigerants that were in use back then, such as ammonia, R-22 or Chlorodifluoromethane as is its proper name, was used for its stability and non-toxicity.  With a boiling point of a chilly -40.1 Degrees Celsius and the fact that the gas is non-flammable, Freon®22 was until quite recently seen as the ideal choice for home refrigeration units.  Now though, both AC manufacturers and home owners alike are beginning to weigh the differences in costs to both purse and environment between Freon®22 and Puron®.


Puron® or R410-A is fast replacing Freon®22 as the preferred coolant for all modern day refrigeration units throughout the United States, Japan and across all of Europe.  Invented and patented by the Allied Signal company, who later became Honeywell, in 1991, Puron®  cylinders contain only fluorine as opposed to other refrigerants that use Bromine or chlorine like Freon®22, that are now deemed environmentally hazardous using gases that fall under the category of CFCs.  With the help of the Carrier Corporation, Puron® has already taken the monopoly for coolant gas used in all newly made home air conditioning units with Freon® expected to be almost completely phased out by the year 2020.


Reluctant to give up the bread and butter of the companies that they own, the manufacturers of Freon® have discovered a cheeky little loophole in the form of how refrigeration units that would utilise their gas are shipped out across the world.  Ship it dry….” is a term they adopted that states that they are breaking no environmental laws that are now in place if they ship all air conditioning and refrigeration units completely free of refrigerant gas.  This requires a specially qualified engineer to pump the coolant directly into the unit at the location of installation.

And so, just as the manufacturers of Puron® had seemed to all but obliterate the business of creating Freon®22, the manufacturers of the previously unchallenged refrigerant had answered.  Would it be enough? Or, were they simply postponing the inevitable.  Freon®22 Vs. Preon®, the battle had begun.


Freon®22 is doomed to lose this fight for profits however, by belonging to the CFC gasses category, governments throughout the world and environmental lobbyists alike are already condemning its use whereas Preon® does not harm the atmosphere and is already EPA approved.

During the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, an international treaty was put forth and agreed upon. It was named “The Montreal Protocol”.  This treaty, put into force on January the 1st 1989, decreed the capping and eventual banning of the use of CFC gasses that were causing incredible and soon to be irreparable damage to our planet.  Formally signed by 197 parties which included 196 states plus the entire European Union, The Montreal Protocol is considered by many to be one of the greatest examples of global unification to tackle the environmental impact that human beings have upon our home.  The statistics speak for themselves, as by the year 2020 it is predicted that the production of Freon®22 will have suffered a 99.5% reduction since the conventions ruling was introduced.  It seems that any advantage taking of loopholes at this point is simply futile, frankly dangerous and ridiculously stupid.  With an average shelf life of 12 years, anyone installing a refrigeration unit around 2020 will be wasting their money as all manufacturers that could offer repairs will have long been banned.


 ©Christopher Roper

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